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|CRAPS ONLINE | BONO DE $ 400 | CASINO.COM ARGENTINA||Die Bundesliga spiele 2019 scheiterte dann überraschend in den Playoffs der Gruppenzweiten em in england Lettlanddas sich damit erstmals für eine Endrunde qualifizieren konnte und damit die erste europäische Mannschaft ist, die sich für eine EM, aber nicht für eine WM qualifizieren konnte. Ein kleines Finale casino mit roulette den Dritten Platz zwischen den Verlierern der Halbfinalspiele wurde das letzte Mal ausgetragen. So reichte es für die Engländer, um die Playoffs der Gruppenzweiten zu erreichen, in denen die Schotten der Gegner waren. Portugal erreichte dann auch das Finale, verlor tatsuma ito aber überraschend gegen Griechenland, das erstmals Europameister wurde. Slot machine jogos gratis der EM konnte England zwar wieder das Auftaktspiel nicht gewinnen, aber das 1: Steckbrief und persönliche Daten von Jamie Vardy. Nach dem Turnier trat der englische Torwart Peter Shilton nach insgesamt Einsätzen zurück und ist sizzling hot energy casino bis zum heutigen Tage Rekordnationalspieler. Welche neuen Torjäger schlugen ein? Da Belgien gegen den dritten Gruppengegner Spanien gewonnen hatte und Italien zuvor gegen 3. bundesliga handball männer remis gespielt hatte, hatten die Engländer nach zwei Spielen selbst bei einem Casino osnabrück niedersachsen jackpot im letzten Spiel gegen Spanien keine Chance mehr, das Finale zu erreichen. England absolvierte die Qualifikation zur Europameisterschaft in der Gruppe E.|
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Em in england -Wir haben den Auftritt der Schalker benotet. England begann die Qualifikation mit sieben Siegen und qualifizierte sich damit als erste Mannschaft für die EM. Keegan trat im September zurück, nachdem die Mannschaft das letzte Spiel im alten Wembley-Stadion, ein Qualifikationsspiel zur WM gegen Deutschland, verloren hatte. Juni fliegt die Mannschaft dann nach Frankreich und bezieht ihr Quartier in Chantilly , nördlich von Paris. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. England nahm einmal, als Gastgeber am Eröffnungsspiel der EM teil, hatte bisher fünf Heimspiele und spielte viermal gegen den Gastgeber , und jeweils in der Vorrunde, im Viertelfinale. TV und über Social Media teilen. Nach einem langsamen Beginn in der Gruppenphase setzte sich das Team in den K. Dennoch qualifizierte sich die englische Mannschaft bereits vor dem letzten Spiel, das sie gegen Polen aufgrund einer deutlichen Leistungssteigerung mit 2: Dritte Liga Randale bei Jena vs Rostock: Portugal erreichte dann auch das Finale, verlor dieses aber überraschend gegen Griechenland, das erstmals Europameister wurde. Owen Hargreaves 3 ; David Beckham 4. Nationaltrainer Hodgson trat nach dem Spiel von seinem Amt zurück. Steckbrief und persönliche Daten von Danny Rose. Dort gewann England leicht gegen Österreich und eine Auswahl aus Böhmen. Portugal erreichte dann auch das Finale, verlor dieses aber überraschend gegen Griechenland, das erstmals Europameister wurde. Die übrigen Gruppendritten spielen in Playoffs vier weitere Teilnehmer aus. Für Diskussionen sorgte ein von Frank Lampard erzieltes, aber vom Schiedsrichter nicht anerkanntes Tor beim Stand von 1: Casinos by category Online casino directory New online casinos Live dealer casinos Casino royale coin trick by country Casino software Casinos by currency Casinos by language Rogue Casinos. When the urgency of the situation and risk of civil war became apparent, the newly appointed and last Viceroy, Lord Mountbattenhastily brought forward the date to 15 August Millions of people moved to and from British colonies, with large numbers of Indians emigrating to other parts of the empire, such as Malaysia and Fijiand Chinese people to Malaysia, Singapore and the Caribbean. League of Nations mandate. Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left em in england mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland. With the advent of the Industrial Revolutiongoods produced by slavery became less important Flux Slot Machine Online ᐈ Thunderkick™ Casino Slots the British economy. A series of Acts of Parliament were passed, including the Regulating Book of ra 6 deluxe free ofPitt's India Act of and the Charter Act of which regulated the Company's affairs and established the sovereignty 10bet login the Crown over the territories that it had acquired. HelenaCeylon and the territories administered by neue online blackjack casinos East India Company, though these exclusions were later repealed. As the threat of war with Germany increased during the s, Britain judged the support of Arabs as more important than the establishment of a Jewish homeland, and shifted to a pro-Arab stance, limiting Jewish immigration and in turn triggering a Frei wild free download insurgency. Opened May 25th, Responsible government was first granted to Nova Scotia inand ksw37 soon extended to the other British North Casino am chiemsee colonies. Views Read View source View history. Retrieved 22 January Lloyd, Trevor Owen Envious of the great wealth these empires generated,  England, Franceand the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia.
Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War , during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military, financial and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power.
Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire.
India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire.
After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations , a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms , that share a monarch , Queen Elizabeth II.
The foundations of the British Empire were laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again.
No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I , during the last decades of the 16th century.
This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World.
By this time, Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas and was exploring the Pacific Ocean, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River area, later to become New France.
Although England trailed behind other European powers in establishing overseas colonies, it had been engaged during the 16th century in the settlement of Ireland with Protestants from England and Scotland, drawing on precedents dating back to the Norman invasion of Ireland in In , Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration.
Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh , who was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in Later that year, Raleigh founded the Roanoke Colony on the coast of present-day North Carolina , but lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.
Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructures to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies.
This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has subsequently been referred to by some historians as the "First British Empire".
The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies,  but not before several attempts at colonisation failed.
An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in lasted only two years, and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits.
This led to hostilities with the United Dutch Provinces —a series of Anglo-Dutch Wars —which would eventually strengthen England's position in the Americas at the expense of the Dutch.
England's first permanent settlement in the Americas was founded in in Jamestown , led by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company. Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the shipwreck of the Virginia Company's flagship , and in was turned over to the newly formed Somers Isles Company.
The Province of Carolina was founded in The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who preferred their temperate climates.
Forts and trading posts established by the HBC were frequently the subject of attacks by the French, who had established their own fur trading colony in adjacent New France.
Two years later, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves to the British colonies of the Caribbean.
Until the abolition of its slave trade in , Britain was responsible for the transportation of 3. For the transported, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average mortality rate during the Middle Passage was one in seven.
In , the Parliament of Scotland granted a charter to the Company of Scotland , which established a settlement in on the Isthmus of Panama. Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of New Granada , and afflicted by malaria , the colony was abandoned two years later.
The Darien scheme was a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital  was lost in the enterprise—and ended Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire.
The episode also had major political consequences, persuading the governments of both England and Scotland of the merits of a union of countries, rather than just crowns.
At the end of the 16th century, England and the Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages—the English, later British, East India Company and the Dutch East India Company , chartered in and respectively.
The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice trade , an effort focused mainly on two regions; the East Indies archipelago , and an important hub in the trade network, India.
There, they competed for trade supremacy with Portugal and with each other. Hostilities ceased after the Glorious Revolution of when the Dutch William of Orange ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England.
A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and by , in terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch.
Peace between England and the Netherlands in meant that the two countries entered the Nine Years' War as allies, but the conflict—waged in Europe and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance—left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their military budget on the costly land war in Europe.
The death of Charles II of Spain in and his bequeathal of Spain and its colonial empire to Philippe of Anjou , a grandson of the King of France , raised the prospect of the unification of France, Spain and their respective colonies, an unacceptable state of affairs for England and the other powers of Europe.
At the concluding Treaty of Utrecht , Philip renounced his and his descendants' right to the French throne and Spain lost its empire in Europe.
Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento permission to sell slaves in Spanish America to Britain.
The British and French struggles in India became but one theatre of the global Seven Years' War — involving France, Britain and the other major European powers.
The signing of the Treaty of Paris had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land ,  and the ceding of New France to Britain leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control and Louisiana to Spain.
Spain ceded Florida to Britain. Along with its victory over France in India, the Seven Years' War therefore left Britain as the world's most powerful maritime power.
During the s and early s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent.
The American Revolution began with rejection of Parliamentary authority and moves towards self-government. In response, Britain sent troops to reimpose direct rule, leading to the outbreak of war in The following year, in , the United States declared independence.
The entry of France into the war in tipped the military balance in the Americans' favour and after a decisive defeat at Yorktown in , Britain began negotiating peace terms.
American independence was acknowledged at the Peace of Paris in The loss of such a large portion of British America , at the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by some historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,  in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.
Adam Smith 's Wealth of Nations , published in , had argued that colonies were redundant, and that free trade should replace the old mercantilist policies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal.
The war to the south influenced British policy in Canada, where between 40, and ,  defeated Loyalists had migrated from the new United States following independence.
Tensions between Britain and the United States escalated again during the Napoleonic Wars , as Britain tried to cut off American trade with France and boarded American ships to impress men into the Royal Navy.
The US declared war, the War of , and invaded Canadian territory. In response Britain invaded the US, but the pre-war boundaries were reaffirmed by the Treaty of Ghent , ensuring Canada's future would be separate from that of the United States.
Since , transportation to the American colonies had been a penalty for various offences in Britain, with approximately one thousand convicts transported per year across the Atlantic.
During his voyage, Cook also visited New Zealand, first discovered by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in , and claimed the North and South islands for the British crown in and respectively.
European settlement increased through the early decades of the 19th century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North.
In , the New Zealand Company announced plans to buy large tracts of land and establish colonies in New Zealand.
Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon , in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations.
Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe.
The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navy , which won a decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in With the advent of the Industrial Revolution , goods produced by slavery became less important to the British economy.
With support from the British abolitionist movement, Parliament enacted the Slave Trade Act in , which abolished the slave trade in the empire.
In , Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate was designated an official British colony for freed slaves. The Slavery Abolition Act , passed the following year, abolished slavery in the British Empire on 1 August , finally bringing the Empire into line with the law in the UK with the exception of St.
Helena , Ceylon and the territories administered by the East India Company, though these exclusions were later repealed.
Under the Act, slaves were granted full emancipation after a period of four to six years of "apprenticeship". British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraph , new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the empire.
By , the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, called the All Red Line. The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to co-operate in arenas outside India: From its base in India, the Company had also been engaged in an increasingly profitable opium export trade to China since the s.
This trade, illegal since it was outlawed by the Qing dynasty in , helped reverse the trade imbalances resulting from the British imports of tea, which saw large outflows of silver from Britain to China.
During the late 18th and early 19th centuries the British Crown began to assume an increasingly large role in the affairs of the Company. A series of Acts of Parliament were passed, including the Regulating Act of , Pitt's India Act of and the Charter Act of which regulated the Company's affairs and established the sovereignty of the Crown over the territories that it had acquired.
The following year the British government dissolved the Company and assumed direct control over India through the Government of India Act , establishing the British Raj , where an appointed governor-general administered India and Queen Victoria was crowned the Empress of India.
A series of serious crop failures in the late 19th century led to widespread famines on the subcontinent in which it is estimated that over 15 million people died.
The East India Company had failed to implement any coordinated policy to deal with the famines during its period of rule. Later, under direct British rule, commissions were set up after each famine to investigate the causes and implement new policies, which took until the early s to have an effect.
During the 19th century, Britain and the Russian Empire vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman Empire , Qajar dynasty and Qing Dynasty.
This rivalry in Central Asia came to be known as the " Great Game ". For a while it appeared that another war would be inevitable, but the two countries reached an agreement on their respective spheres of influence in the region in and on all outstanding matters in with the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente.
The Dutch East India Company had founded the Cape Colony on the southern tip of Africa in as a way station for its ships travelling to and from its colonies in the East Indies.
Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large Afrikaner or Boer population in , having occupied it in to prevent its falling into French hands during the Flanders Campaign.
Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: Initially the Canal was opposed by the British;  but once opened, its strategic value was quickly recognised and became the "jugular vein of the Empire".
Although this did not grant outright control of the strategic waterway, it did give Britain leverage. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in With competitive French, Belgian and Portuguese activity in the lower Congo River region undermining orderly colonisation of tropical Africa, the Berlin Conference of —85 was held to regulate the competition between the European powers in what was called the " Scramble for Africa " by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims.
A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Mahdist Army in , and rebuffed an attempted French invasion at Fashoda in Sudan was nominally made an Anglo-Egyptian condominium , but a British colony in reality.
British gains in Southern and East Africa prompted Cecil Rhodes , pioneer of British expansion in Southern Africa, to urge a " Cape to Cairo " railway linking the strategically important Suez Canal to the mineral-rich south of the continent.
The path to independence for the white colonies of the British Empire began with the Durham Report , which proposed unification and self-government for Upper and Lower Canada , as a solution to political unrest which had erupted in armed rebellions in Responsible government was first granted to Nova Scotia in , and was soon extended to the other British North American colonies.
With the passage of the British North America Act, by the British Parliament , Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were formed into the Dominion of Canada , a confederation enjoying full self-government with the exception of international relations.
The last decades of the 19th century saw concerted political campaigns for Irish home rule. Ireland had been united with Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with the Act of Union after the Irish Rebellion of , and had suffered a severe famine between and Home rule was supported by the British Prime minister , William Gladstone , who hoped that Ireland might follow in Canada's footsteps as a Dominion within the empire, but his Home Rule bill was defeated in Parliament.
Although the bill, if passed, would have granted Ireland less autonomy within the UK than the Canadian provinces had within their own federation,  many MPs feared that a partially independent Ireland might pose a security threat to Great Britain or mark the beginning of the break-up of the empire.
By the turn of the 20th century, fears had begun to grow in Britain that it would no longer be able to defend the metropole and the entirety of the empire while at the same time maintaining the policy of " splendid isolation ".
Recognising that it was overstretched in the Pacific  and threatened at home by the Imperial German Navy , Britain formed an alliance with Japan in and with its old enemies France and Russia in and , respectively.
Britain's fears of war with Germany were realised in with the outbreak of the First World War. Britain quickly invaded and occupied most of Germany's overseas colonies in Africa.
Plans for a post-war division of the Ottoman Empire , which had joined the war on Germany's side, were secretly drawn up by Britain and France under the Sykes—Picot Agreement.
This agreement was not divulged to the Sharif of Mecca , who the British had been encouraging to launch an Arab revolt against their Ottoman rulers, giving the impression that Britain was supporting the creation of an independent Arab state.
The British declaration of war on Germany and its allies also committed the colonies and Dominions, which provided invaluable military, financial and material support.
The countries continue to commemorate this occasion on Anzac Day. Canadians viewed the Battle of Vimy Ridge in a similar light.
The Dominions themselves also acquired mandates of their own: Nauru was made a combined mandate of Britain and the two Pacific Dominions.
The changing world order that the war had brought about, in particular the growth of the United States and Japan as naval powers, and the rise of independence movements in India and Ireland, caused a major reassessment of British imperial policy.
The Irish Republican Army simultaneously began a guerrilla war against the British administration. A similar struggle began in India when the Government of India Act failed to satisfy demand for independence.
This led to tension,  particularly in the Punjab region , where repressive measures culminated in the Amritsar Massacre.
In Britain public opinion was divided over the morality of the massacre, between those who saw it as having saved India from anarchy, and those who viewed it with revulsion.
In , Egypt, which had been declared a British protectorate at the outbreak of the First World War, was granted formal independence , though it continued to be a British client state until British troops remained stationed in Egypt until the signing of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty in ,  under which it was agreed that the troops would withdraw but continue to occupy and defend the Suez Canal zone.
In return, Egypt was assisted in joining the League of Nations. The Balfour Declaration , which had been incorporated into the terms of the mandate, stated that a national home for the Jewish people would be established in Palestine, and Jewish immigration allowed up to a limit that would be determined by the mandatory power.
As the threat of war with Germany increased during the s, Britain judged the support of Arabs as more important than the establishment of a Jewish homeland, and shifted to a pro-Arab stance, limiting Jewish immigration and in turn triggering a Jewish insurgency.
The right of the Dominions to set their own foreign policy, independent of Britain, was recognised at the Imperial Conference. All soon declared war on Germany, but Ireland chose to remain legally neutral throughout the war.
Roosevelt for military aid from the United States, but Roosevelt was not yet ready to ask Congress to commit the country to war. This wording was ambiguous as to whether it referred to European countries invaded by Germany and Italy, or the peoples colonised by European nations, and would later be interpreted differently by the British, Americans, and nationalist movements.
Churchill's reaction to the entry of the United States into the war was that Britain was now assured of victory and the future of the empire was safe,  but the manner in which British forces were rapidly defeated in the Far East irreversibly harmed Britain's standing and prestige as an imperial power.
Though Britain and the empire emerged victorious from the Second World War , the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad.
Much of Europe, a continent that had dominated the world for several centuries, was in ruins, and host to the armies of the United States and the Soviet Union, who now held the balance of global power.
In principle, both nations were opposed to European colonialism. In practice, however, American anti-communism prevailed over anti-imperialism , and therefore the United States supported the continued existence of the British Empire to keep Communist expansion in check.
This was in contrast to other European powers such as France and Portugal,  which waged costly and ultimately unsuccessful wars to keep their empires intact.
Between and , the number of people under British rule outside the UK itself fell from million to five million, three million of whom were in Hong Kong.
The pro-decolonisation Labour government, elected at the general election and led by Clement Attlee , moved quickly to tackle the most pressing issue facing the empire: Congress favoured a unified secular Indian state, whereas the League, fearing domination by the Hindu majority, desired a separate Islamic state for Muslim-majority regions.
Increasing civil unrest and the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy during led Attlee to promise independence no later than 30 June When the urgency of the situation and risk of civil war became apparent, the newly appointed and last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten , hastily brought forward the date to 15 August Burma, which had been administered as part of the British Raj , and Sri Lanka gained their independence the following year in The British mandate in Palestine , where an Arab majority lived alongside a Jewish minority, presented the British with a similar problem to that of India.
Frustrated by the intractability of the problem, attacks by Jewish paramilitary organisations and the increasing cost of maintaining its military presence, Britain announced in that it would withdraw in and leave the matter to the United Nations to solve.
Following the surrender of Japan in the Second World War, anti-Japanese resistance movements in Malaya turned their attention towards the British, who had moved to quickly retake control of the colony, valuing it as a source of rubber and tin.
In , the 11 states of the federation together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo joined to form Malaysia , but in Chinese-majority Singapore was expelled from the union following tensions between the Malay and Chinese populations.
In , the Conservative Party returned to power in Britain, under the leadership of Winston Churchill. Churchill and the Conservatives believed that Britain's position as a world power relied on the continued existence of the empire, with the base at the Suez Canal allowing Britain to maintain its pre-eminent position in the Middle East in spite of the loss of India.
However, Churchill could not ignore Gamal Abdul Nasser 's new revolutionary government of Egypt that had taken power in , and the following year it was agreed that British troops would withdraw from the Suez Canal zone and that Sudan would be granted self-determination by , with independence to follow.
In July , Nasser unilaterally nationalised the Suez Canal. The response of Anthony Eden , who had succeeded Churchill as Prime Minister, was to collude with France to engineer an Israeli attack on Egypt that would give Britain and France an excuse to intervene militarily and retake the canal.
Eisenhower , by his lack of consultation, and Eisenhower refused to back the invasion. Eisenhower applied financial leverage by threatening to sell US reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency.
The Suez Crisis very publicly exposed Britain's limitations to the world and confirmed Britain's decline on the world stage, demonstrating that henceforth it could no longer act without at least the acquiescence, if not the full support, of the United States.
On 16 January , a few weeks after the devaluation of the pound , Prime Minister Harold Wilson and his Defence Secretary Denis Healey announced that British troops would be withdrawn from major military bases East of Suez , which included the ones in the Middle East, and primarily from Malaysia and Singapore by the end of , instead of as earlier planned.
Macmillan gave a speech in Cape Town , South Africa in February where he spoke of "the wind of change blowing through this continent".
Britain's remaining colonies in Africa, except for self-governing Southern Rhodesia , were all granted independence by British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts of Africa was not a peaceful process.
Kenyan independence was preceded by the eight-year Mau Mau Uprising. In Rhodesia , the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the white minority resulted in a civil war that lasted until the Lancaster House Agreement of , which set the terms for recognised independence in , as the new nation of Zimbabwe.
In the Mediterranean, a guerrilla war waged by Greek Cypriots ended in leading to an independent Cyprus , with the UK retaining the military bases of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
The Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo were amicably granted independence from the UK in and became the country of Malta , though the idea had been raised in of integration with Britain.
Most of the UK's Caribbean territories achieved independence after the departure in and of Jamaica and Trinidad from the West Indies Federation , established in in an attempt to unite the British Caribbean colonies under one government, but which collapsed following the loss of its two largest members.
Britain's last colony on the American mainland, British Honduras , became a self-governing colony in and was renamed Belize in , achieving full independence in A dispute with Guatemala over claims to Belize was left unresolved.
British territories in the Pacific acquired independence in the s beginning with Fiji in and ending with Vanuatu in Vanuatu's independence was delayed because of political conflict between English and French-speaking communities, as the islands had been jointly administered as a condominium with France.
In , Southern Rhodesia , Britain's last African colony, became the independent nation of Zimbabwe.
The New Hebrides achieved independence as Vanuatu in , with Belize following suit in The passage of the British Nationality Act , which reclassified the remaining Crown colonies as "British Dependent Territories" renamed British Overseas Territories in  meant that, aside from a scattering of islands and outposts, the process of decolonisation that had begun after the Second World War was largely complete.
In , Britain's resolve in defending its remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands , acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire.
The hero of the finals was Gerd Müller, who scored both goals in the semi-final win against Belgium and two more in the defeat of the Soviet Union.
He recalls those days here. At 23 Horst Hrubesch was playing lower league football, but six years on the "late starter" scored Germany's last-gasp winner in the UEFA European Championship final.
In an all-star France team the inspiration was captain Michel Platini, whose nine-goal tally, including two hat-tricks, remains a record.
The brilliant talisman analyses France's first success. A hat-trick against England, a semi-final winner versus West Germany and a spectacular volley to see off the Soviet Union in the final — Marco van Basten is not short of memories from Here he reflects on a memorable summer.
Greece captain Theodoros Zagorakis was Player of the Tournament in for his stubborn performances that kept a superb defence well protected.
He indulges in some nostalgia here. Cristiano Ronaldo was injured at the start of the final, but proved to be as inspiring from behind the touchline as he had been on the pitch as Portugal ground out another victory.
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Profile Account settings Preferences Log out. History Overview Background Memories Majestic Spain reign once again.
Spain deliver on promise at last. Fernando Torres struck the only goal in the Vienna showpiece as Spain, without a title in 44 years, finally came good on their promise.
Underdogs Greece have their day. Otto Rehhagel's Greece pulled off one of the biggest shocks in tournament history by accounting for hosts Portugal in the final.
Trezeguet strikes gold for France. Football comes home for Germany. Germany upstaged hosts England in a penalty shoot-out before Oliver Bierhoff's golden goal edged out the Czech Republic in the final.
Denmark late show steals spotlight. Van Basten sparks Netherlands joy. Marco van Basten shook off injury to inspire the Netherlands to their first major title, culminating in an incredible final volley.
Platini shines for flamboyant France. Michel Platini starred on home turf, scoring the opener in France's final win against Spain to take his tally to nine for the tournament.
Hrubesch crowns West German win. Panenka the hero for Czechoslovakia. West Germany make their mark. Italy make most of good fortune.
Spain savour home comforts.